Legal disclosures

General information

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Covestor Limited doing business as Interactive Brokers Asset Management (referred to as “IBKRAM”) is an investment adviser registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. Registration with the SEC does not imply any level of skill or training. Additional information about our firm can be found in the Informational Brochure (Part 2 of our Form ADV filing with the SEC), our other documents and disclosures on the Forms and agreements page of our website, and on the SEC’s website at Adviser Information

IBKRAM offers an online investment platform through which its clients can invest in two types of portfolios: (1) trading strategies managed by third-party portfolio managers and (2) proprietary investment portfolios designed and managed by IBKRAM itself. Covestor allows clients to invest in these strategies by simultaneously mirroring or replicating the trading activity in a manager- or IBKRAM-owned and managed account underlying the specific portfolio into the investing clients’ accounts.

Based on a risk scoring methodology, clients select one or more portfolios to invest in. IBKRAM analyzes each strategy on the platform and assigns a risk score between one (least risky) and five (most risky) to each portfolio, in order to ensure that the portfolio risk is in line with client expectations and meets IBKRAM’s fiduciary obligation to recommend suitable investments for clients. To ensure that IBKRAM clients have access only to portfolios that are suitable for their ability to take on risk and risk tolerance, IBKRAM profiles clients using a risk questionnaire to ascertain their risk tolerance, using the same scale of one to five. Clients may only invest in portfolios with a risk score equal to or lower than their personal risk score. Clients can update their responses to the risk questionnaire on IBKRAM’s website at any time to reflect changes in their personal circumstances. Changes to the risk questionnaire responses could result in a change in a client’s risk score and thus the portfolios that a client are able to invest in.

IBKRAM’s advisory services are only provided to investors who become clients pursuant to a written Investment Management Agreement (available on the Forms and agreements page), which both potential and existing clients are urged to read carefully and consider in determining whether such an agreement is suitable for their particular circumstances. Current and prospective clients are also urged to review IBKRAM’s Informational Brochure (Parts 2A and 2B of IBKRAM’s Form ADV Filing), also available on the Forms and agreements page. Clients may invest in portfolios directly or through their existing wealth manager or investment adviser.

IBKRAM is part of the Interactive Brokers Group, and all brokerage transactions in IBKRAM client accounts are made through Interactive Brokers LLC, an IBKRAM affiliate, which is a conflict of interest.

IBKRAM does not provide personalized financial planning to clients, such as estate, tax or retirement planning. While IBKRAM does provide investment advice to its clients, the information on the IBKRAM website and this web page is provided as general and impersonalized investment information and is not a recommendation, offer or solicitation to buy or sell any security. IBKRAM does not guarantee or certify the quality, accuracy, completeness, or timeliness of any content contained on the IBKRAM website.

Clients interested in using IBKRAM’s services should be aware of the fact that IBKRAM provides its investment services primarily online, although it does make client support staff available for consultation as needed by clients on servicing and investment management issues. Clients should be able and willing to conduct most of their interactions with IBKRAM using electronic methods. In the Investment Management Agreement they execute with IBKRAM, Clients agree to receive all documents, notices and updates electronically by email or through their access to IBKRAM’s website accompanied by an email notice.


IBKRAM uses its best judgment and good faith efforts in rendering services to clients, but it cannot warrant or guarantee any particular level of account performance, or that any account will be profitable over time. Not every investment decision or recommendation made by IBKRAM will be profitable. IBKRAM clients assume all market risk involved in the investment of account assets under the Investment Management Agreement and understand that investment decisions made by IBKRAM in their accounts are subject to various market, currency, economic, political and business risks. There can be no assurance that an investment in one or more IBKRAM portfolios or any actual performance shown on the IBKRAM website will lead to the same results in the future or perform in any predictable manner. It should not be assumed that investors will experience returns in the future, if any, comparable to those shown or that all of IBKRAM’s clients experienced such returns.

System response and account access times may vary due to a variety of factors, including trading volumes, market conditions, system performance, and others.

Clients and investments and IBKRAM’s reliance on suitability information provided by clients

Portfolios available for investment on the IBKRAM platform may not be suitable for all investors. IBKRAM only allows you to invest in a portfolio it offers if it deems that portfolios suitable for you in light of your financial situation and investment objectives that you have described to IBKRAM in response to our risk questionnaire. Therefore, the investment advice IBKRAM provides to clients is highly dependent on the accuracy of the information provided to IBKRAM by its clients. If a client provides inaccurate information or fails to update outdated information, the quality and relevance of IBKRAM’s investment advice could be materially affected. Clients should keep IBKRAM informed of any changes in their financial situation or investment objectives and should periodically review and update their answers to IBKRAM’s risk questionnaire and the list of securities they specified should not be traded in their IBKRAM account. IBKRAM will periodically prompt clients to review the answers to its risk questionnaire and the list of securities they specified should not be traded in their IBKRAM account.

IBKRAM’s investment advice is based on the risk questionnaire it asks clients through its website and the answers and information clients provide to IBKRAM. There may be additional information or financial circumstances not asked about in IBKRAM’s risk questionnaire that could inform but is not taken into account or reflected in IBKRAM’s investment advice. Clients may choose to contact another financial advisor to discuss any such additional information or other financial circumstances that clients may think could be relevant to IBKRAM’s investment advice.

Portfolios and portfolio managers

All Portfolio Manager information published on the portfolio manager’s website pages, including personal data, profiles, strategies, fact sheets, monthly investment reports, and any historical results outside of IBKRAM, has been provided by the Portfolio Managers. IBKRAM makes no representation or warranty as to its accuracy, completeness or relevance. This information does not represent the opinions of IBKRAM. IBKRAM has not confirmed the accuracy of these fact sheets or information and is providing these as background information about the strategy for clients’ review.

Performance returns

Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

Periodic and since inception performance returns for managers and portfolios are calculated daily and presented net of simulated advisory fees and actual brokerage commissions.

For client accounts, periodic and since inception performance returns are updated continuously throughout the day, with up to a 15-minute delay on pricing. Performance of client accounts is calculated by IBKRAM daily on a time-weighted basis including cash, dividends paid, earnings distributions, and reflects the deduction of IBKRAM advisory fees, brokerage and other commissions and expenses actually paid by clients.

The performance charts are provided for informational purposes only, and should not be used as the basis for making an investment decision. We rely on mathematical formulas, computer programs, and pricing information from third-party vendors to provide these returns. Neither IBKRAM nor any of its data or content providers shall be liable for any errors in this information or any actions taken by you in reliance upon this information.

Portfolio manager account performance

Performance of the Portfolio Manager’s account displayed on each portfolio page is calculated by IBKRAM on a daily time-weighted basis, including cash, dividends and earnings distributions and reflects the deduction of brokerage commissions. Manager returns include trades and positions that fail IBKRAM’s trading rules. As a result, actual client returns will differ. IBKRAM advisory fees are simulated and applied retroactively to present the portfolio return net-of-fees.

Some portfolio pages include historical Portfolio Manager returns with inception dates prior to launch on IBKRAM. These returns include trading history and positions data provided by the Portfolio Manager and are represented on the performance chart as a dotted blue line. The differences between advisory fees charged to accounts included in these historical returns and the fee applicable to investments in the portfolio on IBKRAM and netted out of the Portfolio Manager’s account limit the comparability of current performance of the Portfolio Manager account and the pre-IBKRAM historical performance. IBKRAM has not reviewed this historical performance data, but has received manager certification that it adheres to the current strategy.

Benchmark returns

Comparisons to benchmarks or indices are provided for illustrative purposes only. An index is a broadly diversified, unmanaged group of securities, which may include only large capitalization companies or companies of a certain size. Broadly based indices may be shown only as an indication of the general performance of the financial markets during the periods indicated. The S&P 500 Index is intended for comparison to general equity market behavior only and may not be suitable for comparison to individual portfolios with specific objectives, such as industry or security types.

Because of the differences between portfolio and client investments and any indices shown, IBKRAM cautions investors that no index is directly comparable to the performance shown since each index has its own unique results and volatility, and such indices, if shown, should not be relied upon as an accurate comparison. Index comparisons are provided for informational purposes only and should not be used as the basis for making investment decisions. There are significant differences between client accounts and the indices referenced including, but not limited to, risk profile, liquidity, volatility and asset composition. If you would like more specific information about a particular index, please visit the respective index’s website.

Benchmarks relevant to each portfolio are assigned by IBKRAM based on overall strategy, portfolio trade history, and/or other criteria.

Generally, IBKRAM uses an investable exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) as a benchmark. While index returns do not reflect the deduction of any management fees, transaction costs or expenses and individuals cannot invest directly in an index, investable ETF returns reflect the deduction of (i.e., are net of) management fees, transaction costs and expenses. Benchmark returns displayed on the individual portfolio profile pages have been calculated by IBKRAM using daily adjusted close prices.

IBKRAM managed portfolios

In addition to Portfolio Manager strategies, IBKRAM allows its clients to invest in portfolios (referred to as the IBKRAM Portfolios) that IBKRAM itself manages. Because IBKRAM staff have constructed and manage the IBKRAM Portfolios without any involvement on the part of third-party Portfolio Managers, IBKRAM retains the entire annual management fee charged to its clients for investments in these portfolios and does not pay any portion of this fee to any Portfolio Managers. Some of the IBKRAM Portfolios are constructed based on data or model portfolios licensed from third parties, and for these portfolios IBKRAM remits some of the management fee revenue collected from investing clients to the third parties licensing the data or model portfolios to it.

These portfolios are proprietary investment portfolios designed and managed by IBKRAM itself, and not by third-party Portfolio Managers. To manage these portfolios, IBKRAM trades some of its own capital in separate proprietary brokerage accounts associated with each IBKRAM portfolio and then mirrors this trading in the accounts of clients investing in that specific portfolio. Subsequently, any rebalancing trades placed by IBKRAM in these portfolios are proportionally replicated in client accounts investing in one or more of these portfolios via IBKRAM’s co-trading technology.

Please note that, due to the potentially large number of positions included in some of the IBKRAM Portfolios (e.g., Smart Beta and Index Tracker Portfolios), the initial and any recurring investment and the periodic rebalancings will result in numerous transactions in an investing client’s account. This portfolio turnover will lead to transaction costs, such as commissions payable to Interactive Brokers LLC (IBKRAM’s affiliated broker-dealer) whenever IBKRAM buys and sells securities in the IBKRAM Portfolios, which is a conflict of interest. The higher turnover associated with quarterly rebalancing trades could also result in bid-ask spread expenses and dividends being disqualified from qualified dividend treatment.

You will need to report some (or all) of these trades on your tax forms. IBKRAM cannot provide tax advice or prepare tax documents for you. Please consult an accountant or tax attorney to determine the tax-related obligations associated with investing in the IBKRAM Portfolios. Please note that Interactive Brokers LLC provides certain tools to assist you with your tax filings, but these tools may only be able to support a limited number of trades.

Information about the investment strategy underlying each IBKRAM Portfolio may be found on the individual portfolio pages.

The IBKRAM Portfolios mainly invest in stocks and ETFs and may not be suitable for all investors. You may lose all or part of investments in these portfolios. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

You may find additional information on the risks, conflicts of interest, applicable fees and brokerage commissions, brokerage arrangements, fractional shares, and limitations on investments and divestments associated with each type of IBKRAM Portfolio (along with IBKRAM’s full disclosures) in Risk Disclosures documents on the Forms and agreements page, which clients must acknowledge before investing in each of these portfolio types.

Trade replication and adjustment trades

IBKRAM manages client accounts by replicating portfolio trades in the accounts of clients investing in each portfolio. Clients choose the specific portfolios and may block specific investments from being made in their accounts, but IBKRAM is responsible for all trading in client accounts. While IBKRAM aims to replicate portfolio trading activity as closely as possible in client accounts, it cannot guarantee it will succeed in doing so or that it will achieve the same performance as the underlying portfolio. This is due to a number of factors, including but not limited to:

  • The timing of the client’s initial investment and any subsequent additions and withdrawals to the account;
  • Restrictions clients place on the trading in their account,
  • Any delay in receipt of portfolio trading data,
  • Rounding differences resulting from differing levels of assets in clients’ accounts invested in a portfolio and the account underlying the portfolio,
  • IBKRAM’s discretionary decisions stemming from trade replication rules,
  • Any changes IBKRAM may make to the way it replicates portfolio trades in client accounts, and
  • Any corporate actions affecting the stocks the specific portfolio invests in.

To ensure that IBKRAM is able to better track the trading activity in the portfolios, clients authorize IBKRAM to make adjustment trades in their accounts. These adjustments may require small buy or sell trades in client accounts for which clients will incur additional commissions.

Advisory fees

Fees may vary for each client based on the portfolios selected for investment. Advisory fees are calculated based upon the amount of assets being managed by IBKRAM (as detailed in IBKRAM’s Informational Brochure, Form ADV Part 2, and the Investment Management Agreement).

IBKRAM charges clients an annual management fee ranging between 0.08% and 1.5% of the gross market value of client assets invested.

An additional performance fee ranging between 2-12% of positive performance may be applied to qualified clients investing in performance fee portfolios. As of the date of the latest update of this webpage (June 2018), IBKRAM did not offer any portfolios for which it charged a performance fee to clients. IBKRAM uses an online Qualified Client affirmation process to assess whether a specific client is a qualified client under the applicable SEC rule.

The fees applicable to investments in each portfolio are set forth on each portfolio page at IBKRAM does not charge clients fees on assets not invested in a portfolio and does not charge clients for closing their account.

IBKRAM’s fees only cover its investment advisory services and do not include brokerage commissions, custodial fees, transaction fees, exchange fees or other related costs and expenses incurred for the investment of client assets through IBKRAM. All fees paid to IBKRAM for its investment advisory services are separate, distinct and in addition to any fees and expenses charged by mutual funds or in conjunction with internal expenses associated with ETFs. Clients will be solely responsible, directly or indirectly, for these additional expenses. IBKRAM does not receive any portion of these commissions, fees, or costs.

Many of the portfolios on the IBKRAM platform invest in ETFs. For these portfolios, in addition to the annual management fees (IBKRAM charges you) and the commissions (IBKRAM’s affiliated broker-dealer Interactive Brokers LLC charges you), the issuer or sponsor of the ETF will also charge you fees and costs (i.e., expense ratio). This embedded expense ratio includes management fees, legal and custodian fees and could reduce the net asset of the ETF, affect its performance and indirectly affect your investment in that ETF on the IBKRAM platform. You will thus pay more when investing in ETFs through us if you purchased the ETF directly because you will need to pay IBKRAM an annual management fee. Neither we nor our affiliated broker-dealer benefit from the fees charged by the ETF issuer, but for the IBKRAM Portfolios where IBKRAM controls the specific ETFs included we try to select and invest in ETFs with lower fees. Information on ETF fees are disclosed in the prospectus for each ETF, and the ETF issuer may change these embedded fees at its own discretion.

Investment minimum

The investment minimum is the minimum dollar amount required to invest in a particular portfolio. The minimum amount is determined by IBKRAM, based on the characteristics of the underlying portfolio. IBKRAM investment minimums start at $5,000 for IBKRAM portfolios and $10,000 for portfolios managed by third-party Portfolio Managers. Investment minimums should not be considered specific investment advice for your investment situation.

Brokerage arrangement and applicable commissions

Pursuant to the Investment Management Agreement between IBKRAM and its clients, all brokerage transactions occur through Interactive Brokers LLC, an affiliate of IBKRAM. IBKRAM does not offer services through any other broker-dealer. The use of an affiliate for brokerage services represents a conflict of interest. IBKRAM clients acknowledge this conflict of interest and authorize IBKRAM to execute transactions through Interactive Brokers LLC when they open an IBKRAM account. Clients should consider the commissions and other expenses, execution, clearance, and settlement capabilities of Interactive Brokers LLC as a factor in their decision to invest in an IBKRAM Portfolio. IBKRAM believes it can meet its best execution obligation by trading its clients’ trades through Interactive Brokers LLC. While there can be no assurance that it will in fact achieve best execution, IBKRAM does periodically monitor the execution quality of transactions to ensure that clients receive the best overall trade execution pursuant to regulatory requirements.

Interactive Brokers LLC charges IBKRAM clients commissions based on IB’s tiered commissions structure for stock trades.

Generally, for transactions in stock portfolios managed by third-party managers, Interactive Brokers LLC charges IBKRAM clients commissions of $0.0035 per share, with exchange, regulatory and clearing fees charged separately. (This is subject to a minimum per order commission of $0.35 and a maximum of 0.5% of the value of the trade.)

For transactions in IBKRAM Portfolios, Interactive Brokers LLC offers IBKRAM clients a modified tiered commission structure. Under this structure, Interactive Brokers LLC charges $0.0035 in commissions per aggregated shares based on the whole “basket” of securities in a client’s IBKRAM Portfolio rather than on each security. Generally, for trades in an IBKRAM Portfolio, Interactive Brokers LLC charges a minimum commission equal to the lower of $5 or 0.05% of trade value per client account, if more than the standard tiered commissions charge of $0.0035 per aggregated shares in the client basket. Interactive Brokers LLC caps commissions on the IBKRAM Portfolios at 0.5% of the value of the basket trade.

Additionally, Interactive Brokers LLC requires certain types of brokerage accounts to generate a minimum level of commissions each month. Under certain circumstances, Interactive Brokers LLC will charge IBKRAM clients a minimum monthly commission charge of up to $10. Specifically, whenever the overall monthly commissions paid by all IBKRAM client accounts do not amount to at least $10 in commissions per account per month, Interactive Brokers LLC will collectively charge IBKRAM clients the difference between the actual commissions charged and the overall $10 minimum due for all IBKRAM clients, determined on a pro rata basis (based on the amount by which each IBKRAM client account is below the $10 minimum.)

You may find information on the commissions applicable to your Interactive Brokers LLC brokerage account, including your IBKRAM investments, on the Interactive Brokers website here: Stocks, ETFs (ETPs) and Warrants - Tiered Pricing Structure and Commissions for IBKRAM Portfolios.

No self-directed trading

IBKRAM offers a discretionary investment advisory program and not a self-directed brokerage service. IBKRAM clients do not enter individual buy and sell orders for specific securities to be executed at particular times. IBKRAM places buy and sell orders for specific securities consistent with the Portfolio Manager or IBKRAM Portfolio strategy selected by clients, in accordance with the discretionary authority granted to IBKRAM by clients. Investors wishing to control the specific time and securities to be bought and sold, should execute trades in a non-IBKRAM managed Interactive Brokers LLC brokerage account or another brokerage account.

IBKRAM clients may restrict the stocks traded in their account at any time and IBKRAM will honor these restrictions when mirroring the trading in the portfolios clients choose to invest in. Clients should understand that imposing restrictions on future investments and selling any existing holdings in a portfolio may negatively affect the performance of a client account and lead to that account performing better or worse than the portfolio it follows.

Short selling disclosure

Certain portfolios on the IBKRAM platform may sell securities short. Short selling refers to the sale of a security that the seller does not own or a sale consummated by the delivery of a stock borrowed by or for the account of the seller. A short selling strategy hinges on the short seller’s ability to purchase later at a lower price the security he sells without initially owning, and attempts to profit from falling security prices of potentially overvalued stocks.

Short selling is more complex than simply owning securities, involves a high degree of risk, is highly speculative, and is not suitable for all investors. The risk of loss associated with short selling is virtually unlimited. Unlike with stock purchases (where the risk of loss is limited to the amount paid for the stock and the gains are potentially limitless), short selling theoretically carries virtually unlimited risk of loss because there is no limit on the price that a security could reach before the short position is closed. Short selling may also involve additional expenses and risks, including hard-to-borrow stock charges and buy-in risk.

If you are uncomfortable with the level of risk associated with selling securities short, you should not invest in portfolios that sell securities short.

Use of margin disclosure

Certain portfolios on the IBKRAM platform may trade on margin. Margin refers to the use of borrowed funds to fund the investments in an account. Trading on margin involves a high degree of risk, is highly speculative, and is not suitable for all investors. IBKRAM clients should review this important disclosure before deciding to invest in portfolios trading on margin.

Please note that your brokerage account must be enabled for margin trading to invest borrowed funds through your IBKRAM account.

Trading on margin makes the value of an investor’s account increase or decrease at a greater rate than if no funds were borrowed. The higher the amount of margin (or leverage) in a portfolio, the larger both the risk of loss and possibility of profit. In addition, you must pay the broker interest on your margin loan and may need to pay other fees and expenses as well, such as hard-to-borrow fees and buy-in costs. These additional costs may even lead to a lower rate of return than if funds were not borrowed.

Generally, investment strategies involving margin trading are more speculative and carry a greater potential for loss than investments not using margin.

Clients should also note a conflict of interest: a client's decision to employ margin in his IBKRAM account or invest in a Portfolio employing margin will correspondingly increase the management fee payable to IBKRAM because the market value of a client’s account on which the fee is assessed will be increased through the use of margin. The client will be paying Interactive Brokers LLC, IBKRAM’s affiliated broker dealer, interest for the use of margin on his account in addition to paying IBKRAM a higher management fee for the account than would be the case if the account did not use margin. IBKRAM alleviates this conflict of interest by not recommending whether clients should apply margin or leverage to their account. The decision as to whether to employ margin or to select a portfolio that requires the employment of margin is left to the discretion of the client.

If you are uncomfortable with the level of risk or conflicts associated with trading on margin in your account, you should not invest in portfolios using margin.

Compensation of portfolio managers

Portfolio Managers are compensated for licensing their investment data to IBKRAM. IBKRAM compensates Portfolio Managers with a portion of the management fee it charges clients (equivalent to a percentage of the gross market value of client assets managed in that portfolio) investing in their portfolio and, if applicable, a portion of the performance fee it charges any qualified clients. Additional information can be found here.

Reliance on third-party data

IBKRAM’s investment advice relies on data and information from third party sources. While IBKRAM believes that the data it uses in its investment management processes is obtained from reliable sources, it did not audit or validate this data, which may contain errors.

Reliance on technology

IBKRAM’s investment activities depend on various computer and telecommunications technologies, some provided by or dependent upon third parties, such as data feed, data center, telecommunications or utility providers. IBKRAM’s services to its clients could be severely compromised by system and/or telecommunications failures, power loss, unauthorized system access or use, computer viruses, fire or water damage, human errors in using certain systems, or other events or circumstances. Events that may interrupt computer or telecommunications systems could have a material adverse effect on IBKRAM clients, including by preventing IBKRAM from trading, liquidating or monitoring its clients’ investments. IBKRAM maintains back-up electronic books and records at a third-party disaster recovery site. In case of interruption of its computer and/or telecommunications systems, IBKRAM will strive to resume service to its clients promptly, barring any circumstances outside of its control.

Tax disclosures

IBKRAM does not provide tax advice and does not represent in any manner that investments in an IBKRAM portfolio will result in any particular tax consequences. Clients should confer with their personal tax advisers regarding the tax consequences of investing in an IBKRAM portfolio, based on their particular circumstances. Clients and their personal tax advisers are responsible for how the transactions conducted in an account are reported to the IRS or any other taxing authority on the client’s personal tax returns. IBKRAM assumes no responsibility for the tax consequences to any client of any transaction.

Some of the IBKRAM Portfolios (e.g., Smart Beta and Index Tracker Portfolios) invest in a large number of stocks and there will be trades in many of these stocks whenever IBKRAM rebalances the portfolios or clients add to their investment. Clients may need to report some (or all) of these trades on their tax forms. IBKRAM cannot provide tax advice or prepare tax documents for clients. Clients should consult their accountant or tax attorney to determine the tax-related obligations associated with investments in these portfolios. Please note that Interactive Brokers LLC provides certain tools to assist its brokerage clients, including IBKRAM clients, with their tax filings, but these tools may only be able to support a limited number of trades.

No marketing outside of the United States

This is an offer of investment services to US residents only. The content of this website is NOT intended to be a solicitation or advertisement in any jurisdiction other than the United States.This website has been published in the United States exclusively in English and is intended to provide information in compliance with applicable United States laws and regulations.

IBKRAM blog disclosures

Covestor Ltd doing business as Interactive Brokers Asset Management (“IBKRAM”) is an investment advisor registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Registration does not imply a certain level of skill or training nor does it imply endorsement by the SEC.

The content of the IBKRAM Blog includes commentaries written by third-party portfolio managers, freelance writers and IBKRAM employees and does not necessarily represent the opinions of IBKRAM or any of its officers, directors, employees or staff.

The content, whether or not provided by IBKRAM, is offered for informational purposes only, does not constitute investment advice, and is not an offer to buy or sell any security. The content of this blog is not a substitute for obtaining professional financial advice from a qualified person or firm. For additional information or questions about this blog, please contact

Any investments discussed in this blog that are not identified as being held in a portfolio or portfolios are for illustrative purposes only. There is no assurance that IBKRAM will make any investments with the same or similar characteristics as any investments presented. The investments are presented for discussion purposes only and are not a reliable indicator of the performance or investment profile of any composite or client account. Further, the reader should not assume that any investments identified were or will be profitable or that any investment recommendations or investment decisions made by IBKRAM or portfolio managers on its platform in the future will be profitable. IBKRAM blog commentaries may contain forward-looking statements, information and opinions, including descriptions of anticipated market changes and expectations of future activity. IBKRAM portfolio managers and other blog contributors believe that such statements, information, and opinions are based upon reasonable estimates and assumptions. However, forward-looking statements, information and opinions are inherently uncertain and actual events or results may differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Therefore, undue reliance should not be placed on such forward-looking statements, information and opinions.

Any external links provided are offered as a matter of convenience and are not the property or responsibility of IBKRAM. Although IBKRAM has a reasonable belief that the information is factual and up to date, it cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information at these links.

Past performance is no guarantee of future results, nor is it indicative of future performance.

All investments in financial markets involve risk, including the risk of loss, such as a loss of principal and reduction in earnings. Performance of the manager accounts associated with each portfolio has been calculated by IBKRAM on a daily time-weighted basis, including cash, reinvested dividends and earnings, and reflects the deduction of simulated IBKRAM advisory fees and broker commissions to present returns net of fees.

Blog discussions may contain references to portfolio performance. The performance figures stated are net of advisory fees, and include reinvestment of dividends or other earnings. Blog discussions may also contain references or comparisons to indexes or benchmarks.

For additional information regarding the performance of portfolios offered by IBKRAM, index or benchmark comparisons and other information regarding our platform, see the individual portfolio profile pages at as well as our Legal Disclosures page and our Informational Brochure.

No redistribution

This content is provided by IBKRAM for use by users of its website ( in compliance with the Terms of Use of this website. No content may be reprinted, sold, or redistributed without the expressed written consent of IBKRAM.

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